## Main Article Content

## Abstract

This study presents the supersonic inductive Magnetohydrodynamic (SIMHD) generator and simulates its model through the use of COSMOL Multiphysics. This generator, as an inductive MHD generator, is suggested to address the problems associated with the conventional MHD generator. Since the proposed generator does not require a moving part to convert thermal energy to electrical energy, it is categorized as a direct energy convertor. The SIMHD generator consists of a converging-diverging duct and is divided into two sections at the diverging part by means of a diaphragm. Both of these sections are diverging, which makes it possible to obtain a high Mach number. In this regard, the performance of the SIMHD generator is studied by its mathematical modeling and numerical simulation using the finite element method. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the design parameters. The results indicate that the proposed SIMHD duct design will increase the speed from 160 to 1300 m⁄s, and decrease the temperature from 2100 to 1300 K. Moreover, considering a charge generation equation, the produced power for the resistive load 50 Ω equals 25.3 kW. This generator also has the potential to be used in scramjets and ramjets.

## Keywords

## Article Details

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*Future Technology*,

*3*(2), 1–10. Retrieved from https://fupubco.com/futech/article/view/119

* * References

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- S. P. Cicconardi and A. Perna, “Performance analysis of integrated systems based on MHD generators,” Energy Procedia, vol. 45, pp. 1305–1314, 2014.
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- N. Kayukawa, “Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generation: A review and future perspectives,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 33–60, 2004.
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- C. D. Sijoy and S. Chaturvedi, “Conversion of plasma energy into electrical pulse by magnetic flux compression,” Fusion Eng. Des., vol. 86, no. 2–3, pp. 174–182, 2011.
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#### References

V. A. Bityurin, C. A. Borghi, and P. L. Ribani, “High Enthalpy Extraction Numerical Experiment in a Plasma Vane MHD Generator,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 844–851, 1995.

H. Kobayashi and Y. Okuno, “Feasibility study on frozen inert gas plasma MHD generator,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1296–1302, 2000.

S. P. Cicconardi and A. Perna, “Performance analysis of integrated systems based on MHD generators,” Energy Procedia, vol. 45, pp. 1305–1314, 2014.

N. Kayukawa, “Comparisons of MHD topping combined power generation systems,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 41, no. 18, pp. 1953–1974, 2000.

N. Kayukawa, “Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generation: A review and future perspectives,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 33–60, 2004.

R. J. Rosa, “Scaling laws and the envelope of allowable operating conditions for an MHD generator using inert gases,” Adv. Energy Convers., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 265–277, 1965.

J. Lineberry, B. Winklernan, and H. Schmidt, “Results of high power density MHD generator tests,” Energy Convers. Eng. Conf. 1990. IECEC-90. Proc. 25th Intersoc., vol. 2, pp. 474–479, 1990.

R. E. Voshall, R. J. Wright, and R. W. Liebermann, “Design of closed-cycle MHD generator with nonequilibrium ionization and system,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. PS-5, no. 2, 1977.

M. Tanaka, T. Murakami, and Y. Okuno, “Plasma characteristics and performance of magnetohydrodynamic generator with high-temperature inert gas plasma,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 4020–4025, 2014.

Y. Wang, X. Duan, P. Yan, H. Xue, and Q. Li, “A pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator for electric launcher,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 41, no. 1 II, pp. 334–337, 2005.

C. D. Sijoy and S. Chaturvedi, “Conversion of plasma energy into electrical pulse by magnetic flux compression,” Fusion Eng. Des., vol. 86, no. 2–3, pp. 174–182, 2011.

J. M. Wetzer, “Electron density determination in argon cesium MHD-plasmas,” Physica, vol. 123, pp. 247–256, 1984.

T. Murakami and T. Okamura, “Effect of Load Segmentation on the Performance of a Nonequilibrium Disk MHD Generator,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1999–2004, 2002.

A. M. Howatson, An Introduction to Gas Discharges. Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies, 2013.

H. Kobayashi, Y. Okuno, and S. Kabashima, “Three-Dimensional Simulation of Nonequilibrium Seeded Plasma in Closed Cycle Disk MHD Generator,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 380–385, 1997.

V. R. Malghan, “History of MHD power plant development,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 569–590, 1996.

D. E. Thomas, “Energy Conversion Alternatives Study-ECAS-: General Electric Phase I Final Report,” US Government Printing Office, 1976.

A. Montisci and R. Pintus, “Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of an inductive MHD generator,” Power Electron. Electr. Drives Autom. Motion (SPEEDAM), 2010 Int. Symp., pp. 119–123, 2010.

S. Carcangiu, A. Montisci, and R. Pintus, “Performance Analysis of an Inductive Mhd Generator,” MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIGS, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2012.

R. S. Delogu, M. Di Mauro, and A. Montisci, “Inquiry for the Technical Feasibility Assessment of a New Design of MHD Generator,” in 13th Biennal IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC 2006), 2006.

S. Carcangiu and A. Montisci, “Assessment of the machine parameters affecting the overall performance of an inductive MHD generator,” Energy Conf. Exhib. (ENERGYCON), 2012 IEEE Int., pp. 271–275, 2012.

R. Paciorri, W. Dieudonné, G. Degrez, J.-M. Charbonnier, and H. Deconinck, “Exploring the Validity of the Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Model for Hypersonic Flows,” J. Spacecr. Rockets, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 1998.

R. Paciorri and F. Sabetta, “Compressibility Correction for the Spalart-Allmaras Model in Free-Shear Flows,” J. Spacecr. Rockets, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 326–331, 2003.

D. R. Eklund and J. P. Drummondt, “Calculation of Supersonic Turbulent Reacting Coaxial Jets,” vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1633–1641, 1990.

B. Aupoix and P. R. Spalart, “Extensions of the Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model to account for wall roughness,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 454–462, 2003.

White, F. M., and I. Corfield. "Viscous Fluid Flow, vol. 3 McGraw-Hill." New York. (2006)

Raizer, Yu P. "Gas discharge physics. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 449 p." (1991) ISBN: 978-3-642-64760-4

Castellanos, Antonio, ed. Electrohydrodynamics. Vol. 380. Springer Science & Business Media, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-2522-9

N. E. Jewell-larsen, S. V Karpov, I. a Krichtafovitch, V. Jayanty, C.-P. Hsu, and A. V Mamishev, “Modeling of corona-induced electrohydrodynamic flow with COMSOL multiphysics,” Proc. ESA Annu. Meet. Electrost., pp. 1–13, 2008.

A. V Mikheev, N. Kayukawa, N. Okinaka, Y. Kamada, and S. Yatsu, “High-Temperature Coal-Syngas Plasma Characteristics for Advanced MHD Power Generation,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 242–249, 2006.

V. Nikonov, R. Bartnikas, and M. R. Wertheimer, “The influence of dielectric surface charge distribution upon the partial discharge behavior in short air gaps,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 866–874, 2001.

M. R. Wertheimer, I. Radu, and R. Bartnikas, “Dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) in gases at atmospheric pressure: effect of charge trapping,” in Electrets, 2005. ISE-12. 2005 12th International Symposium on, 2005, no. 1, pp. 231–234.

WALSH, EM. "Energy Conversion- Electromechanical, Direct, Nuclear (Book on electromechanical, direct and nuclear energy conversion covering transducer design, nuclear structure, photoelectric conversion, reactor theory, thermionic conversion, etc)." NEW YORK, RONALD PRESS CO., 1967. 408 P (1967) ISBN: 9780826091253