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Strict emission regulations and energy scarcity have ushered in a new era of automotive technology. Utilizing electric power as a second source of energy or an alternative to fossil fuel energy has been the center of attention for decades. Implementing electric energy in vehicles’ powertrain systems requires new system architecture and rigorous methods for decision-making in a multi-disciplinary design procedure. Accordingly, the challenge is to define the design requirements and the economic feasibility of the final product.


Hybrid electric vehicle Battery electric vehicle Powertrain system Power management

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Banagar, I., Mahmoudzadeh Andwari, A., Mehranfar, S., Könnö, J., & Kurvinen, E. . (2023). Electric vehicles’ powertrain systems architectures design complexity. Future Technology, 2(3), 1–4. Retrieved from
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